The American Psychiatricc Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 5th edition (DSMV) defines a Major Depressive episode as follows:
a) 5 or more out of nine symptoms ( including at least one of depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure) in the same 2- week period. Each of these symptoms represents a change from previous functioning, and needs to be present nearly every day :
-Depressed mood (subjective or observed); can be irritable mood in children and adolescents, most of the day.
-Loss of interest or pleasure, ost of the day.
- Change in weight or appetite. Weight 5% change over 1 month;
-Insomnia or hypersomnia
-Psychomotor agitation or retardation (observed);
-Loss of energy or fatigue
-Worthlessness or guilt;
- Impaired concentration or indecisiveness; or
-Recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation or attempt.
b) Symptoms cause significant distress or impairment.
c) Episode is not attributable to a substance or medical condition.
d0 Episode is not better explained by a psychotic disorder.
e) There has never been a manic or hypomanic episode. Exclusion e) does not apply if a (hypo)manic episode was substance induced or attributable to a medical condition.
The World Health Organization's International Classification of Disease and related problems defines a Depressive Episode as follows:
-In typical mild, moderate or severe depressive episodes, there is lowering of mood, decreased energy, and decreased activity.
-Capacity for enjoyment, interest and concentration is reduced. Marked tiredness even after a minimum effort is common. Sleep is usually disturbed and appetite is diminished.
-Bleak and pessimistic views of the future
-Reduced self esteem and self confidence.
-Somatic symptoms may accompany the lowered mood, which is almost the same every day and not responsive to external circumstances. Somaric symtoms include loss of interest, waking up in the morning sseveral hours before the usual time, depression worse in the mornings, marked psychomotor retardation or agitation, loss of appetite, weight loss and loss of libido.
-Depending on the number of symptoms and their severity, depression can be specified as milf, moderate or severe.
2. American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed , (DSMV). Washington DC:American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013
3.world Health Organization International Statistical Classification of Diseases and related health problems, 10th revision. ICD10- internet publication 2016